(1) Natural system:-Bentham and Hooker. His book name GENERA PLANTERUM (2) Phylogenetic system:- The classification is based on evolutionary sequence. Phylogenetic system terms indicate the genetics relationship among the organism by Englar and Prantal.

5-KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS:- 5 kingdom classification was given by R.H.WHITTAKER in 1969. He divided all organism in 5kingdom. (1)Monera (2)Protista (3)Plantae (4) Fungi (5)Animalia

-:KINGDOM MONERA:- The taxon Monera firstly describe a Phylum by German scientist E.HAECAL. Bacteria are the sole members of the kingdom Monera. Bacteria occur almost everywhere. Bacteria are grouped under four categories based on their shapes:- (1) Spherical Coccus (cocci) (2)Rod Shaped Bacillus (bacilli) (3)Comma Shaped Vibrium (vibrio) (4)Spiral Spirillum (spirilla) Bacteria that are saprophyte but can cause disease are caused faculative parasite. Lweenhoek observe bacteria for the first time.


-:AUTOTROPHIC BACTERIA:- [Nitrobacteria ,Nitrococcus ,Nostoc,Azolla]. Bacteria have only One DNA with High Contraction. (1)ARCHAEBACTERIA:- It show symbiotic association. It Lacks PeptidoGlycogen. It found in salty areas,hot springs, marshy areas. It is differ from other bacteria. It have a different cell wall structure. It is responsible for the production of Methane (biogas) from the dung of animals.

-:EUBACTERIA:- Presence of a Rigid cell wall & if motile,flagellum.

-:CYANOBACTERIA:- Also known as Blue green algae (b.g.a). Have chlorophyll a. Colonies surrounded by gelatinous sheath. Form bloom in polluted water bodies. Some can fix N²[Nitrogen fixation] in cell known as Heterocyst. Example=Nostoc,Anabaena,Oscillatoria.

CHEMOSYNTHETIC AUTOTROPHS:- Play role in recycling N,P,S, Fe. Oxidised inorganic substance (eg.nitrates etc.)and use released energy to make ATP.

HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA:- Most abundant in Nature. They are helpful in making Curd from milk, Production of antibiotics, Fixing nitrogen in legume roots,etc. Some causes disease:- Cholera, Typhoid,Tetanus,Citrus canker etc. Some useful in making:-Beverages, Antibiotics,Biodegradation etc.


-: REPRODUCTION IN BACTERIA:- (A) Asexual reproduction= By fission,By spores [During unfavorable condition]. (B) Sexual reproduction:- (i)TRANSFORMATION;- Taking up DNA and non surrounding. (ii) TRANSDUCTION;- Taking up DNA and non virus. (iii) CONJUNCTION;-Taking primitive DNA by another bacteria.

:-MYCOPLASMA:- (i)Lack cell wall. (ii)Smallest living organisation. (iii)Survive without oxygen –Pathogenic.

:-PROTISTA-: (i)Single celled eukaryotes. (ii) Mostly aquatic=Link between plant, animal and fungi. (iii)Reproduce sexually by a process of cell fusion and zygote formation.

(1)-Chrysophytes:- This groups includes Diatoms and golden algae(desmids). They are found in fresh water as well as in marine environments. They are microscopic and float passively in water currents. The walls are embedded with silica and thus the walls are indestructible. Diatoms are the chief ‘Producers’ in the oceans.

(2)-Dinoflagellates:- They are found in mostly marine and photosynthetic. They appear yellow,green,brown,blue,or red depending on the main pigments present in their cells. The cell wall has stiff cellulose plates on the outer surface.


(3)-Euglenoids:- Found in Fresh water (stagnant water). They have two flagella (long & short). They are Photosynthetic in the presence of sunlight. The pigments of euglenoids are identical to those present in higher plants. Example-Euglena.

(4)-Slime Moulds:- They are saprophytic protists. During unfavorable conditions, the plasmodium differentiates and forms fruiting bodies bearing spores at their tips. The spores possess true walls.                     The spores are dispersed by air currents.  


(5)-Protozoans:- Primitive relative of animals. They are believed to be primitive relatives of animals. They are divided in four major groups:- (i)Amoeboid protozoans: These organisms live in fresh water,sea water or moist soil. Some of them such as Entamoeba are parasites.


KINGDOM FUNGI Mostly saprophytes. They show a great diversity in morphology and habitat. You must have seen fungi on a moist bread and rotten fruits. White spots seen on mustard leaves are due and toadstools fungus. Fungi are cosmopolitan and occur in air,water,soil and on animals and plants. They prefer to grow in warm and humid places. Have cell wall of chitin. Yeast:- only unicellular fungi. Hyphae:- Network of hyphae. Coenocytic hyphae:- Filled with multi nucleated cytoplasm. Lichens:- They can also love as symbionts – in association with algae as Lichens. and with roots of higher plants as Mycorrhiza.

:-REPRODUCTION:-. Vegetative-Fragmentation ,budding,fission By spore- Conidia,zoospores,sporangiospores. Sexual- Oospores,ascospores,basidiospores.

SEXUAL CYCLE:- There are three steps present in here:. PLASMOGAMY:- Fusion of protoplasm between two motile /non-motile gametes. (ii)KARYOGAMY:- Fusion of two nuclei. (iii) Mieosis in zygote resulting haploid spores.

Basidiomycetes &Ascomycetes- Has dikaryon(n+n) stage.

Basis of division of fungi into classes:- 1-) Morphology of mycelium. 2-) Mode of spore formation. 3-) Fruiting bodies.

1-)PHYCOMYCETES:- Mycelium -Aseptate + Coenocytic. Asexual reproduction:-Zoospores(motile) or Aplanosore(non-motile). Spores endogenously produced in sporangium. Zygospores- by fusion of spores.

(B-) Ascomycetes:- known as sac fungi,coprophilous. Mycelium:- Branched & Septate. Asexual spore:- Conidia,produced exogenously on special mycelium. Example:- Penicillin, Yeast,Claviceps, Aspergillus, Neurospora.

(C-) Basidiomycetes:- Mycelium -Branched & Septate. Asexual spores & sex organs are absent. Vegetative reproduction by fragmentation .

:-PLASMOGAMY:-. By fusion of two cells. Dikaryotic structure & formed giving rise to Basidium. Karyogamy & meiosis in BASIDIUM= Four basidiospores are formed. Basidiospores produced exogenously on Basidium arranged in fruiting bodies called as – Basidiocarps. Examples:- Agaricus[mushroom],Puccinia[rust fungus],Ustilago[smut].

DEUTEROMYCETES:- Mycelium-Branched & Septate. Class imperfect fungi as sexual stages are unknown. Asexual spores are Conidia. Only vegetative & asexual phase are known. Example:- Alternaria, Collectotrichum, TRichoderma.

:-KINGDOM PLANTAE:-. Includes all eukaryotic chlorophyll-containing organism commonly called plants. The plant cells have an eukaryotic structure with prominent chloroplasts and cell wall mainly made of cellulose. Life cycle of plants has two distinct phases-the diploid spororphytic and the haploid gametophytic – that alternative with eachother. The lengths of the haploid and diploid phases,and whether these phases are free living or dependent on others,vary among different groups in plants. This phenomenon is called alternation of generation.

:-KINGDOM ANIMALIA:-. This kingdom is characterized by heterotrophic eukaryotic organisms that are multicellular and their cells lack cell walls. They digest their food in an internal cavity and store food reserves as glycogen or fat. Their mode of nutrition is holozoic-by ingestion of food. The sexual reproduction is by copulation of male and female followed by embryological development.

-:VIRUSES:- Non-cellular organization characterised by inert crystalline structure outside the living cell. Use host cell machinery to replicate,killing the host.

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