DNA fingerprinting

First time discover by Alec Jeffrey’s (1985).

Dr.lal ji singh is father of Indian DNA fingerprinting. What is DNA fingerprinting??

DNA fingerprinting, also known as DNA profiling or genetic fingerprinting, is a technique used to identify individuals based on unique characteristics of their DNA. This technique was developed in the 1980s and has since become an important tool in forensic science and other fields.

DNA fingerprinting involves analyzing specific regions of an individual’s DNA to generate a unique pattern or profile. These regions, known as variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs), are sections of DNA that differ in length and sequence between individuals. By analyzing the VNTRs, scientists can create a DNA profile that is unique to each individual, except for identical twins who have the same DNA.

The process of DNA fingerprinting involves several steps. First, DNA is extracted from a sample of blood, saliva, or other bodily fluid. Then, specific regions of the DNA are amplified using a technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplified DNA fragments are separated based on size using gel electrophoresis and visualized using a technique such as autoradiography or fluorescence.

Once the DNA profile has been generated, it can be compared to other profiles to determine if there is a match. DNA fingerprinting is commonly used in criminal investigations to link suspects to crime scenes or to exonerate individuals who have been wrongfully accused. It is also used in paternity testing and other applications where the identity of an individual needs to be established based on their DNA.

To perform DNA fingerprinting, scientists typically follow these steps:

DNA extraction: The first step is to obtain a DNA sample from the individual or sample being tested. This can be done using various methods, such as swabbing the inside of the cheek or collecting a blood sample.

PCR amplification: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to amplify specific regions of the DNA, which allows for easier analysis. This involves heating the DNA to denature it, then using special primers to target the specific regions of interest and amplifying them.

Gel electrophoresis: The amplified DNA fragments are then separated by size using gel electrophoresis. The DNA is loaded onto a gel, and an electric current is passed through the gel, causing the DNA fragments to migrate through the gel based on their size.

DNA staining: The separated DNA fragments are then stained with a special dye, which allows the DNA to be visualized.

Analysis: The DNA fingerprint can be analyzed by comparing the pattern of bands on the gel to a known sample or database. The more similar the patterns, the more likely the two samples came from the same individual.

It is important to note that DNA fingerprinting is a complex process that requires skilled technicians and specialized equipment. It is also important to ensure that proper protocols are followed to prevent contamination or errors in the analysis.


“Gene machine” is not a well-defined term and its meaning can vary depending on the context in which it is used. It could refer to a number of different things, including:

DNA synthesizers: These are machines that can be used to chemically synthesize short strands of DNA, which can then be used for various applications, such as gene editing or sequencing.

DNA sequencing machines: These are machines that can read the sequence of DNA nucleotides in a sample, which can be used to identify genetic variations or mutations.

Gene editing machines: These are machines that can be used to modify the DNA sequence of an organism, allowing for precise changes to be made to specific genes.

Automated systems for genetic engineering: These are machines that can automate the process of genetic engineering, from DNA synthesis to gene editing, allowing researchers to quickly and efficiently create new genetic constructs.

In general, the term “gene machine” could be used to refer to any machine or system that is used in the study of genetics or genetic engineering.

Principal of gene machine:- Development of insoluble silica beads support in formed of beads which provide support for solid phase synthsize of DNA chain. Development of suitable deoxyribonucleodise phosphoramdation as synthesis which are suitable to oxidation and hydrolysis ideal form DNA synthesis.

Mechanism of gene machine:- for separate regarve waire containing nucleotide are connected with tube to a celender pack with small silicon beads. These beads provide support for assembly of DNA molecule. Regular waire reagent and solvent are also attached. The hole processor of adding or removing the chemicals from time is control by micro computer control system that is microprocessor.

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