Definition of BIOTECHNOLOGY:-
Biotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that uses biological systems, organisms, or their components to develop new technologies and products. It involves the application of knowledge and techniques from many different fields, including biology, chemistry, physics, and engineering, to solve problems and create new products and services.
In practice, biotechnology can involve a wide range of activities, such as genetic engineering, cell culture, fermentation, bioprocessing, and bioinformatics. Biotechnology is used to develop a wide range of products, including drugs, vaccines, diagnostic tests, genetically modified crops, and biofuels. It has the potential to revolutionize many areas of human life, from healthcare to agriculture to energy production.
Tools of Biotechnology:- (a) Enzyme (lysing enzyme, Restriction endonuclease,lygase). (b) Vector. (c)Gene cloning. (d) Host organism (Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic)
Restriction Endonuclease:- R.e is the well known enzyme that bacteria uses to destroy the DNA of invaiding foreign viruses. These enzymes have the ability to recognised certain nucleotides sequences usually. There are following two types —
(i)Exonuclease:-it is removed nucleotide from the end of the DNA.
(ii) Endonuclease:-it is make cuts at Specific position within the DNA molecule.
They always involve only one strand of DNA. Some imp example of r.e are as follows —
E.cor-I:-it was first isolated from E.colo strain. It cleavage the DNA b/w guanine & adenine.
HaeIII:- it is isolated from haemophilous agyptius. It is cleavage the DNA b/w guanine & cytocine
Bam HI:- it is isolated from bacillusamyloliquifalius. It is cleavage the DNA b/w guanine & guanine.
Hpa I:- it is isolated from haemophilous parainfluenzae. It is cleavage the DNA b/w adenine & thymine.
Msp I:- it is isolated from Moraxella spp. It is cleavage the DNA b/w cytocine & cytocine.
Sal I:- it is isolated from streptomyces Albus. It is cleavage the DNA b/w cytocine & thymine.
Hind II:- it is isolated from haemophilous influezae. It is cleavage the DNA b/w purine & pyrimidine.
Hind III:- it is isolated from haemophilous influezae. It is cleavage the DNA b/w adenine & adenine.
(3)Ligase enzyme:- L.e is used to repair the broken DNA by joining two nucleotides in a DNA strand. DNA Ligase also play active part in process like DNA replication & combination. It commonly use in genetic engineering to do the reverse of a r.e i.e to join together complimentary restriction fragment k/ a molecular glue or molecular binder. DNA Ligase are widely used in genetic engineering for the production of chimaric DNA or hybrid DNA or recombinant DNA. It present in both Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic . It is obtain from e.coli are k/a E.cori DNA Ligase,while obtain from t-4phase are k/a T-4dna Ligases.
Vector in Biotechnology:-
In biotechnology, a vector refers to a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to transfer foreign genetic material, such as a gene or DNA sequence, into a host organism, typically a bacterial or mammalian cell.
The vector acts as a carrier of the foreign DNA, allowing it to be introduced into the host cell where it can be replicated and expressed. Vectors are used extensively in genetic engineering, where they enable the manipulation and modification of genetic material for various applications such as producing recombinant proteins, creating transgenic organisms, and gene therapy.
Commonly used vectors in biotechnology include plasmids, bacteriophages, and viruses, each with its own advantages and limitations for different applications. The choice of vector depends on the intended use and the properties of the host organism.
Biotechnology is the application of biology and technology to develop products and services that improve the quality of life for humans and the environment. Some of the applications of biotechnology include:
- Medicine: Biotechnology has revolutionized the field of medicine by providing new diagnostic tools, treatments, and therapies for various diseases. Biotechnology is used to develop vaccines, gene therapies, and personalized medicine.
- Agriculture: Biotechnology has transformed the way crops are grown and produced. Biotechnology is used to create genetically modified crops that are resistant to pests and diseases, improve crop yields, and reduce the need for harmful pesticides and herbicides.
- Environmental cleanup: Biotechnology is used to clean up contaminated environments by using microorganisms to break down pollutants and toxins. This process is called bioremediation.
- Industrial processes: Biotechnology is used to create new industrial products and processes that are more efficient and environmentally friendly. Biotechnology is used to produce biofuels, bioplastics, and other bioproducts.
- Forensic science: Biotechnology is used to analyze DNA evidence in forensic investigations, which has led to more accurate and reliable criminal investigations.
- Energy production: Biotechnology is used to produce renewable energy sources such as biofuels, which are made from plant-based materials and are less harmful to the environment than fossil fuels.
- Animal husbandry: Biotechnology is used to improve animal health and productivity by developing new vaccines and diagnostic tools, and by creating genetically modified animals that are resistant to diseases.
FOREIGN DNA:- refers to DNA that has been introduced into an organism from another organism or source. It is also known as exogenous DNA or heterologous DNA.
Foreign DNA can be introduced into an organism through various methods such as genetic engineering, transfection, or transformation. Genetic engineering involves the manipulation of DNA in the laboratory, and foreign DNA can be introduced into an organism using vectors such as plasmids or viruses.
Foreign DNA can also be introduced into an organism naturally through the process of horizontal gene transfer, which occurs when DNA is transferred between organisms of the same or different species.
When foreign DNA is introduced into an organism, it can potentially alter the genetic makeup of the organism and result in the expression of new traits or characteristics. This can have important implications in fields such as biotechnology, where foreign DNA is often introduced into organisms to produce useful products or to study gene function. However, the introduction of foreign DNA can also have potential risks, such as unintended effects on the organism or the environment.
RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY:- “Recombinant DNA is for by the combination of foreign DNA & any vector dna is called Recombinant DNA & the process of formation of recombinant DNA is called Recombinant DNA technology„
TYPES Of VECTORS & GENE CLONING:- Plasmid vector, lanbda phase vector,Cosmid vector,To plasmid vector,phagmid vector.
(1)Plasmid vector:- It is usually circular double stranded extra chromosomal DNA molecules. It is self replicating c-dbs. They contain several gene.
Properties of Plasmid vector:- low molecular weight. Presence of multy copy ,so larger quantity of DNA can we obtain. It contains larger no. of restrictions site so suitable for cloning.