Meaning of Biology : The world Biology is a Greek word that Bio means-Life ans Logos mens-Study.

Definition of BIOLOGY -“The science where we study with the life and living organisms with the whole environment„

Biology word was firstly used by Lamark [France]and Treviranus [Germany] in 1801.

Father of Biology is known as Aristotle (384-322 BC).


All living beings are divided into two groups by Aristotle,the Animal groups and the plant groups.

Carolus Linaeus was divided all living beings in two Kingdoms -Animal kingdom and Plant kingdom in our book [Systema Nature].

Linnaeus was started the classification so he known as the Father of Modern Taxonomy.


The term Taxonomy firstly given by A.P.D Candole.

John Ray was classify the 18000 Animal our book “Historia Generalis Planterum”.

Biologists follow universally accepted principles to provide scientific names to known organisms.

Each name has two components –Generic name & the scientific epithet.

This system of providing name with Two components is called Binomial nomenclature.This naming system given by Carolus Linnaeus.

Basic of a modern taxonomy:- (1)-Ecological information (2)External Structure (3)-Internal Structure (4)-Cell Structure (5)-Development

Biological names are generally in Latin and written in italics.The First word represents the Genus [start with capital letters]while the second component denotes Specific epithet [small letters].

Taxonomic categories showing hierarchical arrangement in ascending order:-. kingdom Phylum or Division Class Order family Tribe Genus Species Kingdom is Largest unit of classification. Species is Lowest unit of classification.


Holotype:-The original type specimen from which the discription of new species is stablish.

Isotypes:-The duplicate of the Holotype.

Neotype:-New nomenclature type when the original type is missing.

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