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BIOLOGICAL diversity represent the same total of variance life form such as unicellular,fungi, protozoa, bacteria and multicellular organisms plant ,fishes, mammals at varies biological level including gene spp.of ecosystem. ★“Biodiversity is the variety of life on earth myriad of processes„. It includes all the large of flora and fauna of this planet earth.the biosphere comprises of a complex connection k/a Biodiversity.

List of countries rich in Biodiversity —(1) Australia (2) Brazil (3)China (4)India (5) Indonesia (6) Mexico (7)South Africa (8) Venezuela (9) Vietnam (10) Zaira


CLASIFICATION DIVERSITY:- Biological diversity deals with the variety of living organism found in the Biosphere. The variability can be observed at three levels —

(1) Genetic diversity: This is the variability among individuals of a species. Example: each human being differ widely from all others. this diversity is due to large no. Of combination possible in our gene that give us Specific characteristics.

(2)Species diversity: The no. Of species of plants and animals that are present in a region constitute it’s species diversity. This diversity of species

(3) Ecosystem diversity: Each area has a various of different ecosystem. These have their own complement of distinctive interlinked spp. each of the various functionally and structurally from other system.


India is one of the world’s most biodiverse countries, with a vast array of ecosystems, habitats, and species. It is home to about 8% of the world’s known biodiversity, including over 90,000 species of animals, 45,000 species of plants, and numerous microbial species.

Here are some of the major biodiversity hotspots and unique ecosystems found in India:

★Western Ghats: The Western Ghats are a range of mountains that run parallel to India’s western coast. This region is home to a wide variety of plant and animal species, including numerous endemic species such as the lion-tailed macaque, the Malabar giant squirrel, and the Nilgiri tahr.

★Himalayas: The Himalayas are the highest mountain range in the world, and they span several countries, including India. This region is home to a wide variety of plant and animal species, including snow leopards, Himalayan black bears, and many rare and endemic plant species.

VALUE OF BIODIVERSITY:- The value of the earth Biological resources can broadly be- classified into the following categories —

(i)Consumptive value:-
Consumptive value refers to the satisfaction or benefit that a consumer derives from using or consuming a product or service. It is the value that a customer perceives from the product or service beyond its actual price or cost.

Consumptive value is subjective and varies from person to person based on their needs, preferences, and expectations. For example, a person who loves to cook may find a high-quality set of kitchen knives to be of high consumptive value, while someone who rarely cooks may not see the same value in them.
(ii) Productive value:-
Productive value refers to the usefulness or value that a product or service has in contributing to economic activity and generating wealth. It can be measured by the extent to which a product or service can satisfy people’s wants and needs, or by the amount of revenue it generates for a business or economy.

In economic terms, productive value is often associated with productivity, which refers to the efficiency with which inputs (such as labor, capital, and technology) are transformed into outputs (such as goods and services). A product or service that is produced efficiently and effectively, using fewer resources and producing more output, has a higher productive value than one that is produced less efficiently. (iii) Social value:-
Biodiversity refers to the variety of life on Earth, including all living organisms and the ecosystems in which they exist. Biodiversity has enormous social value as it provides a range of ecosystem services that are essential to human well-being, including food, clean water, air purification, climate regulation, and many others.

One of the most important social values of biodiversity is its contribution to human health. Biodiversity provides us with medicines and natural remedies that are used to treat a wide range of illnesses and diseases. For example, the anti-cancer drug Taxol was derived from the Pacific yew tree, and the painkiller aspirin was originally derived from the bark of the willow tree.

Biodiversity also plays a crucial role in food security. A diverse range of crops and livestock ensures that we have a stable supply of food, even in the face of changing environmental conditions. In addition, biodiversity provides us with pollinators, such as bees and butterflies, that are essential for the reproduction of many crops.

Biodiversity also has cultural value. Many cultures around the world have developed unique relationships with the natural world, and biodiversity plays a central role in their traditions and practices. The loss of biodiversity can therefore have a profound impact on cultural heritage and identity.

Finally, biodiversity has intrinsic value. Every species has its own unique characteristics and plays a role in the complex web of life on Earth. The loss of even a single species can have cascading effects on the entire ecosystem, leading to a loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services that are essential to human well-being. (iv) Option value:-
Option value in biodiversity refers to the potential future benefits that could be derived from a particular ecosystem or species, even if they are not currently being used or exploited. This concept recognizes that biodiversity has inherent value beyond its direct use or value to humans, and that there may be future uses or benefits that we are not currently aware of.

For example, a particular species of plant may have potential medicinal properties that have not yet been discovered, or an ecosystem may provide critical services such as carbon sequestration or water filtration that could become more valuable in the future as the impacts of climate change become more severe.

The option value of biodiversity emphasizes the importance of preserving and protecting biodiversity, even in cases where its direct economic value may not be immediately apparent. By doing so, we can ensure that future generations have the opportunity to benefit from the potential value of biodiversity, and that we do not irreversibly lose valuable resources and services.

The origin of cultivation of plants in biodiversity can be traced back to the beginning of human civilization. Early humans began to cultivate plants as a means of securing a stable food supply and to ensure the survival of their communities.

The cultivation of plants in biodiversity began with the domestication of wild plants, which were selectively bred over time to produce desirable traits such as larger fruit or grains, improved taste, and higher yields. Some of the earliest crops to be domesticated include wheat, barley, rice, maize, and potatoes.

As human civilization progressed, so did the practice of agriculture. Cultivation techniques became more advanced, and new crops were introduced from different parts of the world. The exchange of plant species between different regions of the world, known as the Columbian Exchange, greatly expanded the diversity of crops grown in different parts of the world.

Today, the cultivation of plants in biodiversity is a critical component of global food security and is essential for sustaining the health and well-being of human populations around the world.

The cultivation of plants has been a fundamental part of human civilization for thousands of years. The origins of plant cultivation can be traced back to the Neolithic period, also known as the New Stone Age, which began around 10,000 BCE.

During this time, humans began to settle in one place and develop agriculture, rather than relying solely on hunting and gathering. They started to domesticate wild plants and animals, selecting and breeding those that provided the most benefits such as food, fiber, and medicine.

Over time, humans have continued to cultivate plants, and through selective breeding, hybridization, and genetic modification, they have developed new varieties that are more productive, resistant to disease, and better suited to different environments.

Today, agriculture is a critical component of global biodiversity, and it is essential for human survival. However, it is important to ensure that agricultural practices are sustainable and do not harm the natural ecosystems that support the diversity of life on Earth.

Chinese centre of origin:
China is considered one of the world’s most important centers of biodiversity, with a rich variety of plant and animal species found within its borders. The country’s diverse landscape, including mountains, forests, grasslands, and wetlands, provides a wide range of habitats for a variety of organisms.

Some of the key areas of biodiversity in China include:

The Himalayas: This mountain range spans several countries, including China, and is home to a wide range of plant and animal species, including the endangered snow leopard and the Himalayan black bear.

The Yangtze River: This river is one of the longest in the world and supports a rich variety of aquatic life, including the endangered Chinese paddlefish and the Yangtze sturgeon.

The tropical forests of southern China: These forests are home to a wide range of plant and animal species, including many rare and endangered species such as the Hainan black-crested gibbon and the Chinese pangolin.

The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: This high-altitude region is home to a variety of unique species adapted to the harsh environment, including the Tibetan antelope and the wild yak.

Overall, China’s biodiversity is incredibly important for the health of the planet, and conservation efforts are essential to protect the country’s natural resources for future generations. ★Indian centre of origin:
India is considered as one of the 12 mega-diverse countries in the world and is recognized as a centre of origin of several crops and wild relatives. The Indian subcontinent is home to a vast array of plant and animal species, owing to its diverse climatic zones, varied topography, and rich cultural history.

Some of the crops that have their origin in India include rice, wheat, millets, sugarcane, cotton, mango, jackfruit, banana, and turmeric. India is also considered as the primary centre of origin for the Brassica species (such as mustard, cauliflower, and cabbage), as well as for several legume species like chickpea, pigeonpea, and lentil.

Apart from crops, India is also home to a large number of animal species, including tigers, elephants, rhinoceroses, leopards, and several species of primates, reptiles, and amphibians.

The rich biodiversity of India is not only important for its cultural and ecological significance but also has enormous economic potential. The country’s vast genetic resources can be harnessed for the development of new crops and medicines, among other things, contributing to the country’s sustainable development.

★Central Asiatic centre of origin:
There is ongoing debate among scholars about the exact location of the center of origin for various crops, including those that are believed to have originated in Central Asia.

However, there is evidence to suggest that certain crops, such as wheat and barley, may have originated in the region that is now modern-day Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan. These crops were first domesticated in the region and then spread to other parts of the world.

Other crops that are believed to have originated in Central Asia include apples, apricots, and grapes. These crops have been cultivated in the region for thousands of years and have played an important role in the local economy and culture.

Overall, while there is no clear consensus on the exact location of the center of origin for all crops in Central Asia, the region has played an important role in the domestication and cultivation of several important crops.

★Near eastern centre of origin:
The Near East is considered one of the centers of origin of biodiversity, particularly for crops. This region, which includes parts of western Asia and northeastern Africa, has a long history of agriculture and is home to numerous wild plant species that have been domesticated and cultivated by humans for thousands of years.

Many important crops, such as wheat, barley, chickpeas, lentils, and olives, have their origins in the Near East. These crops were domesticated by early agricultural societies in the region and were subsequently spread to other parts of the world through trade and migration.

In addition to crops, the Near East is also home to a rich diversity of wild plants and animals, including many species that are found nowhere else in the world. The region’s diverse landscapes, which range from deserts to mountains to wetlands, support a wide range of plant and animal life.

However, the biodiversity of the Near East is under threat from a variety of factors, including habitat loss, climate change, and overexploitation. Conservation efforts are underway to protect the region’s unique biodiversity and to promote sustainable agriculture and land use practices. ★Mediterean centre of origin:
The Mediterranean region is widely recognized as one of the world’s centers of biodiversity and is considered to be a center of origin for a number of important crops, including olives, figs, grapes, and citrus fruits. The region’s diverse landscape, which includes mountains, forests, grasslands, wetlands, and coastal areas, has contributed to the development of a wide variety of plant and animal species. In addition to its rich biological diversity, the Mediterranean region is also home to a number of cultural and historical treasures, including ancient ruins, traditional villages, and unique cuisine, making it a popular destination for tourists and researchers alike.

Abyssinian centre of origin:

The Abyssinian region, which includes parts of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Sudan, is widely considered to be one of the world’s centers of origin for biodiversity. This region is known for its diverse array of plant and animal species, including numerous crops and livestock breeds that have been domesticated and used by humans for thousands of years.

Some of the crops that originated in the Abyssinian region include coffee, teff, and finger millet. Additionally, the region is home to numerous wild plant species that have potential uses in medicine, food, and other industries.

The Abyssinian region is also known for its rich animal biodiversity, including numerous endemic species such as the Ethiopian wolf, gelada baboon, and Abyssinian cat. Additionally, the region is home to many unique livestock breeds that have adapted to local conditions and play important roles in local agriculture.

Overall, the Abyssinian region is an important center of origin for biodiversity and has played a significant role in shaping the genetic diversity of many important crops and livestock species.

South maxico and central American centre of origin:

The region of Mesoamerica, which includes parts of southern Mexico and Central America, is considered a center of origin for biodiversity. This region is home to a diverse range of flora and fauna, including many plant and animal species that are found nowhere else in the world.

Some of the key factors that have contributed to the high levels of biodiversity in this region include its varied topography and climate, which support a wide range of habitats and ecosystems. The area also has a long history of human settlement and agriculture, which has led to the development of many unique crop species and agricultural practices.

Overall, the region of Mesoamerica is recognized as a critical hotspot of biodiversity, and efforts are ongoing to protect and conserve the many unique species and ecosystems that are found there.

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